Development and validation of a scale to measure volition for learning

John M. Keller, Hasan Ucar, Alper Tolga Kumtepe

Abstract


Volition explains the transition from desire, or motivation, to action especially when faced with competing goals. In learning environments, the concept refers to acting with the aim of achieving learning objectives. Despite the importance of volition in learning environments, research has rarely addressed the volition construct. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore and develop a valid and reliable scale to measure the volition construct in online and face to face learning environments. The data for this research were collected from 594 undergraduate online learners who also took some courses face to face at a state university in Turkey. After analyzing the validity and reliability of the scale, a two-factor, 13-item volition for learning scale was developed. The scale was comprised of two factors: action planning and action control. Confirmatory factor analysis results confirm the factor structure of the scale. Results indicated that the volition for learning scale is a valid and reliable instrument that can be utilized to measure learners’ volition in learning environments.


Keywords


Motivation; volition; scale development; measurement; online learning

Full Text:

HTML PDF XML

References


Achtziger, A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2018). Motivation and volition in the course of action. In J. Heckhausen, & H. Heckhausen (Eds.), Motivation and Action (3rd ed.) (pp. 485-527). Switzerland, Cham: Springer Publishing.

Angelo, T.A. (2017). Assessing Motivation to Improve Learning: Practical Applications of Keller's MVP Model and ARCS‐V Design Process. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2017(152), 99-108. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.20272

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.

Bartels, J. M., Magun-Jackson, S., & Kemp, A. D. (2009). Volitional regulation and self-regulated learning: An examination of individual differences in approach-avoidance achievement motivation. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 7(2), 605-626. https://doi.org/10.25115/ejrep.v7i18.1370

Bonk, C. J., & Khoo, E. (2014). Adding some TEC-VARIETY: 100+ activities for motivating and retaining learners online (1st ed.). Bloomington, Indiana: Open World Books.

Brophy, J. E. (2010). Motivating students to learn (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Chen, G., Bao, J., & Huang, S. (2014). Developing a scale to measure backpackers’ personal development. Journal of Travel Research, 53(4), 522-536. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287513500392

Corno, L., & Kanfer, R. (1993). The role of volition in learning and performance. Review of Research in Education, 19(1), 301-341. https://doi.org/10.2307/1167345

Deimann, M., & Bastiaens, T. (2010). The role of volition in distance education: an exploration of its capacities. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 11(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v11i1.778

Deimann, M., Weber, B., & Bastiaens, T. (2009). Development of a test of volitional competence in schools and universities. Unterrichtswissenschaft, 37(4), 362-379.

DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and applications (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Dewitte, S., & Lens, W. (1999). Volition: Use with measure. Learning and individual differences, 11(3), 321-333. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1041-6080(99)80006-5

Ertmer, P. A. & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-72. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1937-8327.1993.tb00605.x

Fornell, C., & D. F. Larcker. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Germain, M.L. (2006). Stages of psychometric measurement development: The sample of the generalized expertise measure (GEM). Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development International (AHRD) Conference, Symposium 42-2, Columbus, Ohio, 22–26 February 2006 (pp. 893–898). Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED492775.pdf

Gliem, J. A., & Gliem, R. R. (2003). Calculating, interpreting, and reporting Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for Likert-type scales. Paper presented in 2003 Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education (pp. 82-88). Columbus, Ohio, USA. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/bitstream/handle/1805/344/Gliem%20&%20Gliem.pdf?s

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1993). Goal achievement: The role of intentions. European Review of Social Psychology, 4(1), 141-185. https://doi.org/10.1080/14792779343000059

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54(7), 493-503. https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066x.54.7.493

Gollwitzer, P. M. (2015). Setting one's mind on action: Planning out goal striving in advance. In R. A. Scott & S. M. Kosslyn (Eds.). Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences (pp.1-14). (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118900772.etrds0298

Grund, A., & Fries, S. (2018). Understanding procrastination: A motivational approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 121(2018), 120-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.09.035

Hartnett, M. (2016). Motivation in online education (1st ed.). Singapore: Springer Publishing.

Hinkin, T. R., Tracey, J. B., & Enz, C. A. (1997). Scale construction: Developing reliable and valid measurement instruments. Cornell University, School of Hotel Administration.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

Huang, C. C., Wang, Y. M., Wu, T. W., & Wang, P. A. (2013). An empirical analysis of the antecedents and performance consequences of using the moodle platform. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 3(2), 217-221. https://doi.org/10.7763/ijiet.2013.v3.267

Huck, S. W. (2012). Reading statistics and research (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Keller, J. M. (2008a). An integrative theory of motivation, volition, and performance. Technology, Instruction, Cognition, and Learning, 6(2), 79-104.

Keller, J. M. (2008b). First principles of motivation to learn and e-learning. Distance Education, 29(2), 175-185. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587910802154970

Keller, J. M. (2010). Motivational design for learning and performance: The ARCS model approach (1st ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.

Keller, J. M. (2017). The MVP Model: Overview and Application. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2017(152), 13-26. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.20265

Keller, J. M. & Deimann, M. (2012). Motivation, volition, and performance. In R. A. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds.). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (1st ed.) (pp. 84-95). Boston: Pearson.

Kim, C., & Keller, J. M. (2008). Effects of motivational and volitional email messages (MVEM) with personal messages on undergraduate student's motivation, study habits, and achievement. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(1) 36-51. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00701.x

Kim, C., & Keller, J. M. (2010). Motivation, volition and belief change strategies to improve mathematics learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(5), 407-420. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2010.00356.x

Kim, J. H., Ritchie, J. B., & McCormick, B. (2012). Development of a scale to measure memorable tourism experiences. Journal of Travel Research, 51(1), 12-25. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287510385467

Kuhl, J. (1987). Action control: The maintenance of motivational states. In F. Halisch & J. Kuhl (Eds.), Motivation, intention and volition (pp. 279- 291). Berlin: Springer Publishing.

Kuhl, J., & Fuhrmann, A. (1998). Decomposing self-regulation and self-control: The volitional components inventory. In J. Heckhausen & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulation across the life span (pp. 15-49). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McCann, E., & Turner, J. E. (2004). Increasing student learning through volitional control. Teachers College Record, 106(9), 1695-1714. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9620.2004.00401.x

Muthen, L. & Muthen, B. (2012). Mplus Version 7 User's Guide. Author.

Netemeyer, R.G., Bearden, W.O., & Sharma, S. (2003). Scaling procedures: Issues and applications (1st ed.). London: Sage Publications.

Ottingen, G., Schrage, J., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2016). Volition. In L. Corno & E. M. Anderman (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (3rd ed) (pp. 104-117). Routledge.

Schermelleh-Engel, K., & Moosbrugger, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.

Shanahan, M. J., & Pychyl, T. A. (2007). An ego identity perspective on volitional action: Identity status, agency, and procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(4), 901-911. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.02.013

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Pearson.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(3), 329-339. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-0663.81.3.329




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.12.2.1082

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.