Development and validation of a scale to measure volition for learning

John M. Keller, Hasan Ucar, Alper Tolga Kumtepe


Volition explains the transition from desire, or motivation, to action especially when faced with competing goals. In learning environments, the concept refers to acting with the aim of achieving learning objectives. Despite the importance of volition in learning environments, research has rarely addressed the volition construct. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore and develop a valid and reliable scale to measure the volition construct in online and face to face learning environments. The data for this research were collected from 594 undergraduate online learners who also took some courses face to face at a state university in Turkey. After analyzing the validity and reliability of the scale, a two-factor, 13-item volition for learning scale was developed. The scale was comprised of two factors: action planning and action control. Confirmatory factor analysis results confirm the factor structure of the scale. Results indicated that the volition for learning scale is a valid and reliable instrument that can be utilized to measure learners’ volition in learning environments.


Motivation; volition; scale development; measurement; online learning

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