Recognizing the expatriate and transnational distance student: A preliminary demographic exploration in the Republic of Korea

William H. Stewart

Abstract


Descriptions of distance students in the literature are robust. Yet when speaking about students outside of a national context, nuance is lost by the failure to identify the complexity in borderless higher education. The global student body is often too broadly categorized as “international” when in reality, this can be further refined to produce two additional classifications that more appropriately identify and describe a hitherto invisible phenomenon: the expatriate and transnational distance student. Utilizing respondent-driven sampling, student demographic and academic program data were collected using these two operational definitions. The resulting data suggests a potential profile for the expatriate/transnational distance student phenomenon as manifested in South Korea, along with broader demographic and program characteristics. As a nascent phenomenon and introductory inquiry, the research is limited in scope with the intention of a) establishing a taxonomy for the distance education community, b) a practical method for investigation, and c) avenues for further research such as student characteristics, motivation, attrition/retention, etc. Such insight would assist policy/guidelines for universities, their programs, and instructors.


Keywords


distance students; transnational education; international education; demographics; Korea; globalisation; research methodology

Full Text:

HTML PDF XML

References


Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2013). Changing course: Ten years of tracking online education in the United States. Sloan Consortium. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED541571.pdf

Allen, I. E., Seaman, J., Poulin, R., & Straut, T. T. (2016). Online report card: Tracking online education in the United States. Retrieved from http://onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/onlinereportcard.pdf

Andrews, D., Nonnecke, B., & Preece, J. (2003). Electronic survey methodology: A case study in reaching hard-to-involve Internet users. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 16, 185–210. http://doi.org/10.1207/S15327590IJHC1602_04

Aragon, S. R., & Johnson, E. S. (2008). Factors influencing completion and noncompletion of community college online courses. American Journal of Distance Education, 22, 146–158.

Archer, T. M. (2008). Response rates to expect from web-based surveys and what to do about it. Journal of Extension, 46. Retrieved from http://www.joe.org/joe/2008june/rb3.php

Barchard, K. A., & Williams, J. (2008). Practical advice for conducting ethical online experiments and questionnaires for United States psychologists. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 1111–1128. http://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.4.1111

Bean, J. P. & Metzner, B. S. (1985). A conceptual model of nontraditional undergraduate student attrition. Review of Educational Research, 55, 485–540.

Bennett, L., & Nair, C. S. (2010). A recipe for effective participation rates for web-based surveys. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35, 357–365. http://doi.org/10.1080/02602930802687752

Burford, B., Hesketh, A., Wakeling, J., Bagnall, G., Colthart, I., Illing, J., et al. (2009). Asking the right questions and getting meaningful responses: 12 tips on developing and administering a questionnaire survey for healthcare professionals. Medical Teacher, 31, 207–211. http://doi.org/10.1080/01421590802225762

Creswell, J. W. (2015). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.

Dumais, S. A., Rizzuto, T. E., Cleary, J., & Dowden, L. (2013). Stressors and supports for adult online learners: Comparing first-and continuing-generation college students. American Journal of Distance Education, 27, 100–110.

Edwards, P. J., Roberts, I., Clarke, M. J., DiGuiseppi, C., Wentz, R., Kwan, I., et al. (2009). Methods to increase response to postal and electronic questionnaires. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, Art. No.: MR000008. http://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.MR000008.pub4

Erichsen, E. A., & Bolliger, D. U. (2010). Towards understanding international graduate student isolation in traditional and online environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59, 309–326. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-010-9161-6

Evans, J. R., & Mathur, A. (2005). The value of online surveys. Internet Research, 15, 195–219. http://doi.org/10.1108/10662240510590360

Froese, F. J. (2012). Motivation and adjustment of self-initiated expatriates: The case of expatriate academics in South Korea. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23, 1095–1112. http://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2011.561220

Gemmell, I., Harrison, R., Clegg, J., & Reed, K. (2013). Internationalisation in online distance learning postgraduate education: A case study on student views on learning alongside students from other countries. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 52, 137–147. http://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2014.881264

Habib, L., Johannesen, M., & Øgrim, L. (2014). Experiences and challenges of international students in technology-rich learning environments. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17, 196–206.

Hachey, A. C., Wladis, C. W., & Conway, K. M. (2013). Balancing retention and access in online courses: Restricting enrollment … Is it worth the cost? Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 15, 9–36. http://doi.org/10.2190/CS.15.1.b

Hall, E. T. (1959). The silent language. New York: Doubleday.

Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond culture. New York: Doubleday.

Hoyt, C.L., &, Simon, S. (2016). Gender and leadership. In P.G. Northouse (Ed.). Leadership theory and practice (pp. 397–426). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Hughes, H. (2013). International students using online information resources to learn: complex experience and learning needs. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 37, 126–146. http://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2011.644778

Kauffman, H. (2015). A review of predictive factors of student success in and satisfaction with online learning. Research in Learning Technology, 23. http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/rlt.v23.26507

Kaupp, R. (2012). Online penalty: The impact of online instruction on the Latino-White achievement gap. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 12, 8–16.

Kelly, K. L., & Schorger, J. R. (2003). Putting the DISTANCE in distance education: An international experience in rural special education personnel preparation. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 22, 1–11.

Lee, D. Y. (2011). Korean and foreign students’ perceptions of the teacher’s role in a multicultural online learning environment in Korea. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59, 913–935. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-011-9219-0

Lewis, R. (2010). When cultures collide: Leading across cultures. United Kingdom: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Levin, J., & Fox, J. A. (2011). Elementary statistics in social research: The essentials. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Liu, S. Y., Gomez, J., & Yen, C. J. (2009). Community college online course retention and final grade: Predictability of social presence. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 8, 165–182.

Lorenzo, G. (2015). A research review about online learning: Are students satisfied? Why do some succeed and others fail? What contributes to higher retention rates and positive learning outcomes? Internet Learning, 1, 44–54.

Ministry of Justice [MoJ] (2016). Korean Immigration Service Statistics. 1–1055. Retrieved from http://www.immigration.go.kr/HP/COM/bbs_003/BoardList.do?strNbodCd=noti0096&strOrgGbnCd=104000&strFilePath=imm/&strRtnURL=IMM_6050&strNbodCdGbn=&strType=&strAllOrgYn=N

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kalman, H. K., & Kemp, J. E. (2011). Designing effective instruction (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Packham, G., Jones, P., Miller, C., & Thomas, B. (2004). E-learning and retention: Key factors influencing student withdrawal. Education+ Training, 46, 335–342. http://doi.org/10.1108/00400910410555240

Perkins, R. A. (2011, June 24). Using research-based practices to increase response rates of web-based surveys. Educause Review. Retrieved from https://er.educause.edu/articles/2011/6/using-researchbased-practices-to-increase-response-rates-of-webbased-surveys

Pollock, D. C., & Van Reken, R. (2009). Third culture kids: Growing up among worlds. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

Roblyer, M. D., & Davis, L. (2008). Predicting success for virtual school students: Putting research-based models into practice. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 11. Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter114/roblyer114.html

Selinger, M. (2004). Cultural and pedagogical implications of a global e-learning programme. Cambridge Journal of Education, 34, 223–239. http://doi.org/10.1080/03057640410001700589

Selwyn, N. (2011a). Digitally distanced learning: A study of international distance learners’ (non)use of technology. Distance Education, 32, 85–99. http://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2011.565500

Selwyn, N. (2011b). “Finding an appropriate fit for me”: Examining the (in)flexibilities of international distance learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 30, 367–383. http://doi.org/10.1080/02601370.2011.570873

Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S. (2012). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education (5th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson.

Sinkowitz-Cochran, R. L. (2013). Survey design: To ask or not to ask? That is the question…. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 56, 1159–1164. http://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cit005

Stoessel, K., Ihme, T. A., Barbarino, M. L., Fisseler, B., & Stürmer, S. (2015). Sociodemographic diversity and distance education: Who drops out from academic programs and why? Research in Higher Education, 56, 228–246.

Trouteaud, A. R. (2004). How you ask counts: A test of Internet-related components of response rates to a web-based survey. Social Science Computer Review, 22, 385–392. http://doi.org/10.1177/0894439304265650

Tyler-Smith, K. (2006). Early attrition among first time eLearners: A review of factors that contribute to drop-out, withdrawal and non-completion rates of adult learners undertaking eLearning programmes. Journal of Online learning and Teaching, 2, 73–85.

Waclawski, E. (2012). How I use it: Survey Monkey. Occupational Medicine, 62, 477–477. http://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqs075

Xu, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2013). Adaptability to online learning: Differences across types of students and academic subject areas. CCRC Working Paper No. 54. Community College Research Center, Columbia University. Retrieved from http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/adaptability-to-online-learning.pdf

Yoo, S. J., & Huang, W. D. (2013). Engaging online adult learners in higher education: Motivational factors impacted by gender, age, and prior experiences. The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 61, 151–164. http://doi.org/10.1080/07377363.2013.836

Ziguras, C. (2008). Cultural and contextual issues in the evaluation of transnational distance education. In T. Evans, M. Haughey, & D. Murphy (Eds.), International handbook of distance education (pp. 639–653.). United Kingdom: Emerald.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.9.4.677

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.