User-Generated Content’s Impact on the Sustainability of Open Educational Resources

Janani Ganapathi

Abstract


Sustainability is a fundamental requirement to ensure long-term viability of open educational resource (OER) initiatives. To afford technology upgrades and author costs, most of the existing initiatives are heavily reliant on continued funding; limiting OER models to invest in commissioned works. User-generated resources come as a solution to this problem, although a fairly novel concept to the area of child literacy. Consequently, there is little evidence available in earlier literature on their use for education. With online platforms such as social media and gaming sites encouraging users to collaborate and create original content, user-generation is a potential instrument for circumventing costs and achieving rapid dissemination of works. However, it also presents a significant downside – questionable quality. This paper discusses the use of user-created OERs for literacy, exploring the quality and sustainability implications that arise from this creation method and the measures undertaken by an Indian organization to overcome the same.


Keywords


Open educational resources, user-generated content, quality assurance, cost, sustainability, child literacy

Full Text:

HTML PDF XML

References


Ally, M., & Samaka, M. (2013). Open Education Resources and Mobile Technology to Narrow the Learning Divide. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(2). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v14i2.1530

Anderson, T., & McGreal, R. (2012). Disruptive Pedagogies and Technologies in Universities. Educational Technology & Society, 15(4), 380–389. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/jeductechsoci.15.4.380

Annand, D. (2015). Developing a Sustainable Financial Model in Higher Education for Open Educational Resources. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(5), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v16i5.2133

Aroyo, L., & Dicheva, D. (2004). The New Challenges for E-Learning: The Educational Semantic Web. Educational Technology & Society, 7(4), 59–69. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/jeductechsoci.7.4.59

Aydin, C. H., & Ulutak, N. (2010). Open Education Resources of Anadolu University, Turkey. In Proceedings of the MIT LINC 2010 Conference, Cambridge, USA. Retrieved from http://linc.mit.edu/linc2010/proceedings/session10Aydin.pdf

Bannister, J. (2011). Open government: From crown copyright to the creative commons and culture change. University of New South Wales Law Journal, the, 34(3), 1080–1103.

Baral, D. (2012). Redefining Rural Marketing: An Approach Towards Micro Entrepreneurship with Special Reference to Shakti. Asian Journal of Multidimensional Research, 1(4). Retrieved from http://www.tarj.in/images/download/ajmr/AJMR%20SEPTEMBER_September%202012%20PAPERS%20PDF/AJMR%20SEPTEMBER%202012%20PAPERS%20PDF/9.15,%20Dr.%20S.K.%20Baral.pdf

Bissell, A. N. (2009). Permission granted: Open licensing for educational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 24(1), 97. https://doi.org/10.1080/026805108026​27886

Blackman, C. (2016). Content creation and distribution in the digital single market. Info, 18(6), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1108/info-07-2016-0032

Canbek, N. G., & Hargis, J. (2015). Educational Innovation in E-learning: MOOCs and OER Movements in Turkey. Glokalde, 1(1). Retrieved from http://www.glokalde.com/pdf/issues/1/Article2.pdf

Carnoy, M. & Dossani, R. (2013). Goals and governance of higher education in India. Higher Education, 65(5), 595–612. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-012-9565-9

Cechinel, C., Sánchez-Alonso, S. & García-Barriocanal, E. (2011). Statistical Profiles of Highly Rated Learning Objects. Computers & Education 57(1), 1255–1269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.01.012

Clements, K.I. & Pawlowski, J.M. (2012). User-Oriented Quality for OER: Understanding Teachers’ Views on Re-Use, Quality, and Trust. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(1), 4–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00450.x

Cohen, A., & Soffer, T. (2015). Academic Instruction in a Digital World: The Virtual TAU Case. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 177, 9–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.02.322

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.

Cox, G. (2013). Researching Resistance to Open Education Resource Contribution: An Activity Theory Approach. E-Learning and Digital Media, 10(2), 148–160. https://doi.org/10.2304%2Felea.2013.10.2.148

Darries, F. (2004). Internet Access and Use in Reference Services in Higher Education Institutions in South Africa. South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science, 70(2), 72–85. https://doi.org/10.7553/70-2-668

De Langen, F. H. T. & Bitter-Rijkema (2012). Positioning the OER Business Model for Open Education. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 1. Retrieved on October 2, 2015 from http://www.eurodl.org/?p=archives&year=2012&halfyear=1

Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education: an introduction to the philosophy of education. Auckland, New Zealand: Floating Press.

Di Benedetto (2014). In This Issue. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(3), 410–637. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpim.12103

Dillon, D. R. (2012). Grounded theory and qualitative research. The encyclopedia of applied linguistics. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0486

Douglas, N. (2014). It’s Supposed to Look like Shit: The Internet Ugly Aesthetic. Journal of Visual Culture, 13(3), 314–339. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470412914544516

Downes, S. (2007). Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects, 3, 29–44. Retrieved from https://doaj.org/article/6bdf4c22a4f343c89cc55c46c5a2a658

Farisi, M. I. (2013). OER on the Asian Mega Universities: Developments, Motives, Openness, and Sustainability. The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 14(1), 273–289. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.61060

Ferullo, D. L., & Soules, A. (2012). Managing Copyright in a Digital World. International Journal of Digital Library Systems (IJDLS), 3(4), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.4018/ijdls.2012100101

Fladmoe, A. (2012). The Nature of Public Opinion on Education in Norway, Sweden and Finland - Measuring the Degree of Political Polarization at the Mass Level. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 56(5), 457–479. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2011.599420

Garcelon, M. (2009). An Information Commons? Creative Commons and Public Access to Cultural Creations. New Media & Society, 11(8), 1307–1326. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444809343081

Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (2017). Discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. London, England; New York: Routledge.

Hannon, J., Huggard, S., Orchard, A., & Stone, N. (2014). OER in Practice: Organisational Change by Bootstrapping. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 11(3), 134–151. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.7238/rusc.v11i3.2131

Harttgen, K., Klasen, S., & Misselhorn, M. (2010). Pro-Poor Progress in Education in Developing Countries? Review of Economics and Institutions, 1(1), 1–48. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1698379507

Hayes, C. J. (2008). Changing the Rules of the Game: How Video Game Publishers are Embracing User-Generated Derivative Works. Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 21(2), 567–587. Retrieved from http://jolt.law.harvard.edu/articles/pdf/v21/21HarvJLTech567.pdf

Hertz, H. S. (2011). The Future of Organizational Quality. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 34(3), 10. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/907561474

Ilie, S., & Rose, P. (2016). Is Equal Access to Higher Education in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa Achievable by 2030? Higher Education, 72(4), 435–455. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-016-0039-3

Illich, I. (1971). Deschooling Society (1st Harper torchbooks ed.). New York: Harper & Row.

Ingawale, M., Dutta, A., Roy, R., & Seetharaman, P. (2013). Network Analysis of User Generated Content Quality in Wikipedia. Online Information Review, 37(4), 602–619. https://doi.org/10.1108/OIR-03-2011-0182

Jacobs, L. (2007). The Kindness of Strangers: Philanthropy and Higher Education. International Journal of Education Advancement, 7, 65–67. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.ijea.2150045

James, M. J. (2014). Internet Use, Welfare and Well-Being: Evidence from Africa. Social Science Computer Review, 32(6), 715–727. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439314524887

Johansen, J., & Wiley, D. (2011). A Sustainable Model for OpenCourseWare Development. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59(3), 369–382. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-010-9160-7

Johnstone, D.B. (2016). University Revenue Diversification through Philanthropy: International Perspectives. Retrieved on September 1, 2016 from http://www.intconfhighered.org/Bruce​Johnstone.pdf

Joseph, A. M., & Nath, B. A. (2013). Integration of Massive Open Online Education (MOOC) System with In-Classroom Interaction and Assessment and Accreditation: An Extensive Report from A Pilot Study. In Proceedings of the International Conference on eLearning, e-Business, Enterprise Information Systems, and eGovernment (EEE).

Kinshuk, Huang, H., Sampson, D., & Chen, N. (2013). Trends in Educational Technology through the Lens of the Highly Cited Articles Published in the Journal of Educational Technology and Society. Educational Technology and Society, 16(2), 3–20. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1016558

Koščík, M., & Šavelka, J. (2013). Dangers of Over-Enthusiasm in Licensing Under Creative Commons. Masaryk University Journal of Law and Technology, 7(2), 201–227. Retrieved from https://journals.muni.cz/mujlt/article/view/2633/2197

Larson, R. C., & Murray, M. E. (2008). Open Educational Resources for Blended Learning in High Schools: Overcoming Impediments in Developing Countries. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 12(1), 85–103. Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/104082

Larsson, R., Bengtsson, L., Henriksson, K., & Sparks, J. (1998). The Inter-organizational Learning Dilemma: Collective Knowledge Development in Strategic Alliances. Organization Science, 9: 285–305. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.9.3.285

Leahy, P.F. (2009). To the Next Level: How Drexel University Improved Its Fundraising Performance from 1997 to 2007. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304980874

Liesegang, T., Albert, D., & Schachat, A. (2008). How to Ensure Our Readers’ Trust: The Proper Attribution of Authors and Contributors. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 146(3), 337–340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2008.06.007

Mallapragada, G., Grewal, R., & Lilien, G. (2012). User-Generated Open Source Products: Founder’s Social Capital and Time to Product Release. Marketing Science, 31(3), 474–492. https://doi.org/​10.1287/mksc.1110.0690

Masson, P., & Udas, K. (2009). An Agile Approach to Managing Open Educational Resources. On the Horizon, 17(3), 256–266. https://doi.org/10.1108/10748120910993286

Mehta, B. S., & Shree, M. (2015). Impact of ICT in Smalltowns in India: A Case of Public Access to Internet. Knowledge Horizons. Economics, 7(4), 28. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1777746393

Mitra, S., & Rana, V. (2001). Children and the Internet: Experiments with Minimally Invasive Education in India. British Journal of Educational Technology, 32(2), 221–232. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8535.00192

Noguti, V. (2016). Post Language and User Engagement in Online Content Communities. European Journal of Marketing, 50(5–6), 695–723. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-12-2014-0785

Olcott, D. (2012a). OER Perspectives: Emerging Issues for Universities. Distance Education, 33(2), 283–290. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2012.700561

Olcott, D. (2012b). Beyond Open Access: Leveraging OER for University Teaching and Learning. Distance Learning, 9(3), 11. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1140336466

Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) (2007). Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence of Open Educational Resources. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/education/ceri/givingknowledgeforfreetheemergenceofopeneducationalresources.htm

Oyedemi, T. (2015). Internet Access as Citizen’s Right? Citizenship in the Digital Age. Citizenship Studies, 19(3–4), 450–464. https://doi.org/10.1080/13621025.2014.970441

Palavitsinis, N., Manouselis, N., & Sánchez-Alonso, S. (2013). Metadata Quality Issues In Learning Repositories. Retrieved from http://dschool.edu.gr/p61cti/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/qa_of_metadata_palavitsinis_megalou_linq_2015-3.pdf

Pawlowski, J. M., & Zimmermann, V. (2007). Open Content: A Concept for the Future of E-learning and Knowledge Management? Frankfurt: Knowtech. Retrieved from http://users.jyu.fi/~japawlow/knowtech_20070907finalwithcitation.pdf

Pérez-Mateo, M., Maina, M.F., Guitert, M. & Romero, M. (2011). Learner Generated Content: Quality Criteria in Online Collaborative Learning. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning. European Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning (EURODL), Special Issue Articles. Retrieved from http://www.eurodl.org/?p=special&sp=articles&article=459

Piaget, J. & Inhelder, B. (1967). The Child’s Conception of Space. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Pitt, L. F., Watson, R. T., Berthon, P., Wynn, D., & Zinkhan, G. (2006). The Penguin’s Window: Corporate Brands from an Open-Source Perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 115–127. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070305284972

Rohayati, M., Najdi, Y., & Williamson, J. (2016). Philanthropic Fundraising of Higher Education Institutions: A Review of the Malaysian and Australian Perspectives. Sustainability, 8(6), 541. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8060541

Schnackenberg, A. K., & Tomlinson, E. C. (2016). Organizational Transparency: A New Perspective on Managing Trust in Organization-Stakeholder Relationships. Journal of Management, 42(7), 1784–1810. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206314525202

Sener, J. (2010). Why Online Education Will Attain Full Scale. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 14(4), 3–16. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ909907.pdf

Stork, C., Calandro, E., & Gamage, R. (2014). The Future of Broadband in Africa. Info, 16(1), 76–93. https://doi.org/10.1108/info-10-2013-0055

StoryWeaver (2019, January 25). About Pratham Books. Retrieved from https://storyweaver.org.in/publishers/441-pratham-books

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. M. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Sage Publications, Inc.

Tate, M., & Hoshek, D. (2009). A Model for the Effective Management of Re-Usable Learning Objects (RLOs): Lessons from a Case Study. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning and Learning Objects, 5(1), 51–72. Retrieved from http://www.ijklo.org/Volume5/IJELLOv5p051-072Tate412.pdf

Toledo, A., Botero, C., & Guzman, L. (2014). Public Expenditure in Education in Latin America. Recommendations to Serve the Purposes of the Paris Open Educational Resources Declaration. Open Praxis, 6(2), 103–113. https://doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.6.2.119

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Wicherts, J. M. (2016). Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals. PLoS One, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147913

Xuemel, T., & Martin, B. (2012). Business Model Sustainability in Book Publishing. Publishing Research Quarterly 28(2), 100–115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12109-012-9258-3

Zhu, K. (2004). Information Transparency of Business-to-Business Electronic Markets: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. Management Science, 50, 670–685. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1040.0226




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.11.2.941

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.